The CUPESSE consortium has initiated a series of Working Papers on the project. Further Working Papers will be published throughout the project’s lifetime.
Julia Weiß and Bettina Schuck (University of Heidelberg):
First Findings from Employer Interviews, Country report: Germany
Task 4.1 of the CUPESSE project is to understand the importance of hard skills and soft skills for employers’ recruitment decisions – especially when hiring young employees aged 18-35. In this aim, qualitative interviews (i.e., expert interviews with those responsible for hiring new personnel in small, medium-sized and large firms) have been carried out to better understand which and to what extent hard and soft skills matter for employer’ recruitment strategies and decisions. As the lead partner of this task, we developed an interview guideline (see section 8) and carried out nine interviews in Germany. The interviews were carried out by master students from the University of Heidelberg taking a course in “Corporate Social Responsibility” taught by Prof. Jale Tosun. This working paper presents the central results of this case study.
Nadia Steiber (University of Vienna):
First Findings from Employer Interviews
Task 4.1 of the CUPESSE project is about understanding the importance of hard skills and soft skills for employers’ recruitment decisions – especially when hiring young employees and apprentices aged 18-35. In this aim, qualitative interviews (i.e., expert interviews with those responsible for hiring new personnel in small, medium-sized and large firms and enterprises) have been carried out to better understand which and to what extent hard and soft skills matter for employers’ recruitment strategies and decisions. The lead partner of this task – the University of Heidelberg (UHEI) – has developed the interview guidelines and carried out eleven interviews in Germany. In Austria, 22 interviews have been carried out in the time between December 2015 and April 2016 — using a slightly adapted version of the interview guidelines prepared by UHEI (see section 7 for interview guidelines). The interviews have been carried out by master students at the University of Vienna, taking a course in ‘Employment Relations and Human Resources Management’ given by Nadia Steiber. The interviews were carried out in the Eastern part of Austria, in Vienna and Lower Austria.
Monika Mühlböck, Julia Rita Warmuth, Marian Holienka, and Bernhard Kittel:
Desperate Entrepreneurs: No Opportunities, No Skills
Promoting entrepreneurship has become an important policy strategy in Europe in the hope to stimulate the crisis-shaken economy. In this paper, the authors caution against undue expectations. Using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, they find that a considerable proportion of the new entrepreneurs start a business despite a negative perception of business opportunities as well as lack of confidence in their own entrepreneurial skills. The authors extend existing entrepreneurship theories to account for this phenomenon. Testing the hypotheses derived from their model, they find that these people turn to entrepreneurship due to lack of other options to enter the labour market.
Julia Rita Warmuth, Bernhard Kittel, Nadia Steiber, and Monika Mühlböck University of Vienna (UNIVIE):
Cultural Pathways to Economic Self-Sufficiency and Entrepreneurship
The deliverable D1.2, theoretical overview, provides the background of the survey that will be implemented within the CUPESSE-Project as part of objective 1 of the project. Overall, the CUPESSE framework describes a ‘cultural pathway’ to economic self-sufficiency that originates in the nuclear family (parental characteristics, parenting style, early socialization, resource endowment) and that involves the intergenerational transmission of a set of individual characteristics that shape individuals’ life course (e.g. certain attitudes, values and traits). This cultural pathway is conditioned by personal and societal context factors.
As will be outlined, transmission in this regard may work via diverse channels including socialization in the family, exposure to similar environments as parents, schooling, interaction with peers, and genetic heritage. To link all these dynamics to the individual, who represents the supply side of the labor market, a framework of individual-level career decision-making is elaborated, which is based on well-established theories of human behavior and career decision making (theory of planned behavior by Icek Ajzen and Martin Fishbein and the social cognitive career theory developed by Robert Lent and colleagues).
Christoph Arndt, Aarhus University (AU) Felix Hörisch, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (UHEI)
Flexicurity policies in Europe – Diffusion and Effects of flexicurity labour market policies
This working paper gives an overview of the diffusion and the effects of flexicurity labour market policies in Europe. The description of the diffusion of flexicurity policies is split into three parts. First, a broad overview of labour market policies in the EU- and OECD-countries is given, showing that – on average – these countries spend more on passive than on active labour market policies and that active labour market policies that are aiming to foster entrepreneurship so far only play a minor role in labour market policy making. Second, we have a closer look at and compare the spread of start-up incentives and training policies among these countries. Third, we describe recent developments and perspectives of labour market policy making as the labour market policy reactions to financial crisis. Fourth, we show that flexicurity policies have been adapted in various countries beyond the Danish and Dutch pathway cases. The implementation of flexicurity was however not always successful or effective since existing labour market institutions in Mediterranean countries and the lack of trust between employer and employee organizations prevented flexicurity adaption beforehand or its effectiveness in those countries, where they have been introduced. This way, existing labour market institutions and corporatist structure constitute important context factors for successful implementation of flexicurity policies. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our findings.