Debus, Marc, Jale Tosun und Marcel Maxeiner:
Support for Policies on Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment among Parties and Coalition Governments
Politics & Policy 45(3), 338–371, DOI: 10.1111/polp.12205
Abstract: We argue that political parties take not only the economic conditions into account when developing a position on entrepreneurship and self-employment but also consider the “heritage” of a socialist state, which can influence the preferences of voters regarding this issue area. We test our hypotheses on the basis of an analysis of election manifestos and coalition agreements. We focus on the German case since unification allows for comparing electorates socialized in a market economy in the West German states and in a socialist economy in East Germany by holding the institutional setting constant. The results support our hypotheses that growing economic problems increase the saliency of entrepreneurship and self-employment and that differences between parties exist: Christian democratic and liberal parties emphasize entrepreneurship and self-employment in their manifestos more than green or socialist parties. In addition, governments including Christian democratic and liberals agree on more market-liberal policies in coalition agreements compared to left-wing governments.
Vegetti, Federico, Dragos Adascalitei:
The impact of the economic crisis on latent and early entrepreneurship in Europe
International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 2017, 1-26, 10.1007/s11365-017-0456-5
Abstract: The recent economic crisis has thrown many European economies into a period of slow growth and high unemployment. While previous research looked at the impact of the crisis on aggregate indicators of entrepreneurship, not much is known about whether and how it affected individual motivations and efforts to become self-employed. This study aims to fill this gap by looking at the impact of the crisis on latent and early entrepreneurship, as well as on the link between the two. We combine individual and country-level data from 25 EU member states from2006 to 2012. Results of multilevel logistic regressions show that the decrease in entrepreneurial activity in the post-crisis period has been stronger in countries where access to finance for SMEs has been more difficult. Moreover, we show that the high level unemployment generated by the economic crisis has produced a “refugee effect” by pushing into entrepreneurship only those individuals who are not interested in such a career choice.
Tosun, Jale, Marge Unt, Eskil Wadensjö:
Youth-oriented active labour market policies: Explaining policy effort in the Nordic and the Baltic states
Social Policy & Administration 51(4), 598–616, DOI: 10.1111/spol.12315
Abstract: The starting point of this study is the seemingly striking similarity in the number of youth-oriented labour market policies adopted by the Nordic and the Baltic EU member states in 2013–14 despite markedly different welfare regimes. The similarities remain when concentrating on active labour market policies (ALMPs) and extending the observation period to 2007–15, but the application of a more refined coding scheme suggests that there are also notable cross-country differences. Estonia, Finland and Sweden are found to exhibit a relatively similar approach to youth-oriented ALMPs, while Denmark, Latvia and Lithuania are more distinct cases. The similarities in the policy effort can be explained by similar problem pressure, EU-guided policy learning and the provision of EU funding. Lastly, the policy approaches of the Nordic states indicate a path-dependency. Thus, while the youth-oriented policy effort may appear to be quite similar, important differences remain.
Promoting youth employment through multi-organizational governance
Public Money & Management Vol. 37, Iss. 1, 2017, pages 39-46, DOI: 10.1080/09540962.2016.1249230
Abstract: Public employment services are the central bodies implementing the Youth Guarantee in most EU member states, but they often act in partnership with other (public) organizations. In which member states are they the lead organization in the multi-organizational networks responsible for implementing the Youth Guarantee? Under which conditions are governance arrangements led by public employment services likely to produce the intended policy outcomes? These two research questions guide this study.
Vancea, Mihaela, Mireia Utzet:
How unemployment and precarious employment affect the health of young people? A scoping study on social determinants
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2017 Feb, 45 (1), 73-84, DOI: 10.1177/1403494816679555
Abstract: Background: The impact of unemployment and precarious employment on the health of young people is not well understood. However, according to social causation, higher socio-economic positions and thus better working conditions are beneficial to health in general. We tried to synthesize the results of studies that test this hypothesis in the case of young people. Methods: We conducted a scoping study mapping all the academic articles published in the period 2006–2016 in Europe. The literature was searched in PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Web of Science and Scopus. Results: We identified 1770 studies, of which only 46 met the inclusion criteria. There are more studies that focus on the relationship between unemployment and health than between precarious employment and health (28 and 16, respectively). The vast majority of the studies (44) found support for the social causation hypothesis, the most common health outcomes being mental health disorders, health risk behaviour, poor quality of life and occupational injuries. The causal mechanisms behind this association relied mainly on the life-course perspective, the breadwinner model, and the lack of social and economic benefits provided by standard employment. Conclusions: There is evidence that young people are especially vulnerable to health problems when unemployed or working in precarious conditions. Active labour market and training programmes, inclusive social security measures, improved working conditions and targeted health programmes are important for addressing this vulnerability. Further research should strive to enhance the causal model by including a gender perspective, longitudinal data, more indicators on precariousness and third factor explanations.
Vossemer, Jonas; Schuck, Bettina:
Better Overeducated than Unemployed? The Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Overeducated Labour Market Re-entry
European Sociological Review 2015 , doi: 10.1093/esr/jcv093
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that overeducation is inferior to adequate employment. For example, overeducated workers have lower earnings, participate less often in continuing education and training, and are less satisfied with their jobs. This article changes perspectives by asking whether it is better for the unemployed to take up a job for which they are overeducated or to remain unemployed and continue the search for adequate employment. Theoretically, we rely on the established confrontation of the stepping-stone and trap hypotheses, which make opposing predictions in terms of long-term employment chances and job quality. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984–2012) and applying a dynamic propensity score matching approach, the analyses reveal an interesting trade-off. Although an overeducated re-entry increases the long-term employment chances persistently, it also implies strong lock-in effects into overeducation for up to 5 years after re-employment. In sum, the results support the stepping-stone hypothesis in terms of future employment chances, but also highlight non-negligible risks of remaining trapped in a job that is below one’s level of educational qualification.
Jugendarbeitslosigkeit und Beschäftigungspolitik in der EU
Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 65 (4-5), 12-19
Abstract: This paper pursues three objectives. First, it gives overview of the policy measures adopted by the European Union to combat unemployment in general and youth unemployment in particular. It shows that in contrast to general unemployment policy measures tackling youth unemployment are equipped with EU funding. Second, it describes the CUPESSE project and explains how it brings together a range of different disciplines. Third, the paper seeks to familiarize an active labour market programme - Jump Plus - aimed at young unemployed adults in Mannheim, Germany. Due to its success in immediately integrating youth into trainee, internship, and on-the-job learning programmes, the programme has been a role model for other similar approaches across the country.
Hörisch, Felix, Jakob Weber:
Capitalizing the Crisis? Explanatory Factors for the Design of Short-time Work across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Countries
Social Policy & Administration Volume 48, Issue 7, 799-825, DOI: 10.1111/spol.12047
Abstract: This article looks at the financial and economic crisis 2008-10 in 18 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development states and seeks to investigate explanatory paths for the subsidization of further education within short-time work programmes. Several hypotheses are put to the test: first, a classical partisan difference argument; second, a varieties of capitalism approach proposing a successful joint rallying of employers and employees for subsidization in coordinated market economies; and, lastly, the merged hypothesis that right-wing parties in a coordinated economic context might subsidize feeling the pressure to overcompensate an 'issue ownership' of left parties in the field of employee-friendly policies. We identify four explanatory paths: coordinated economies in the sample subsidized when they were economically closed or highly indebted. The results also support our combined hypothesis, that New Zealand - a left-governed liberal market economy - and right-governed coordinated market economies of the non-Scandinavian type subsidized.